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Govardhana Puja, Prabhupada's Lecture

The following is an early class (given in the year1966) by Srila Prabhupada introducing the celebration of Govardhana Puja for the first time in the Western countries to his new disciples.

Prabhupada: [taps microphone]

Today Govardhanadhari, Giridhari, Lord Krsna, today lifted the mountain.

[bad audio]

Demigods like Indra, Chandra,

[taps microphone]

...according to Vedic literature there are. According to Vedic literature there are different demigods. Sometimes we will find in Greek mythology the gods of the water, gods of the thunderbolt. These are not imagination. Actually they are facts. But due to our insufficient knowledge we do not know how the material nature is being controlled.

So when Krsna was on this planet and He was playing the part of a cowherd boy, and it was known to all over the universe that "God has come, taken incarnation, and He is on the earth planet, and He is at Vrndavana playing the part of a cowherd boy..." So as if somebody, if there is incarnation of God, somebody believes and somebody does not believe, when Krsna was actually present on this earth, it is not that everybody understood that Krsna was the Supreme Personality of Godhead, not even up to date. Only few persons, the five brothers of the Pandavas and the damsels of Vrndavana, only in the fingers' count, say, out of the whole population, say, hundred or two hundred men knew Him that He was the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Otherwise, everyone thought that "He is an ordinary man just like one of us, but most powerful. That's all."

Similarly, the demigods in other planets, they also thought, "Oh, he's a foolish person. They are thinking of a cowherd boy as God," sophisticated, like that. And especially Indra, the heavenly kingdom..., king of heaven. He was... He's very powerful, so he thought, "What god he has come? My God, He cannot come." This was some speculation. Even Brahma also speculated. But Krsna wanted to show Indra that "Yes, actually I have come." So that incidence is today, Govardhana-puja.


bhagavan api tatraiva


apasyan nivasan gopan


[SB 10.24.1]

[Sukadeva Gosvami said: While staying in that very place with His brother Baladeva, Lord Krsna happened to see the cowherd men busily arranging for a sacrifice to Indra.]

Indra-yaga-krtodyaman. According to Vedic system, there are different types of sacrifices to offer respect and obediences to the demigods. Just like the sun is supplying light, the moon is supplying moonshine. Similarly, Indra is supplying the cloud. Similarly, there are different demigods. And in the Bhagavad-gita, devan ya yajayanti deva-bhavan -- these things are described. In the Vedic literature it is prescribed that "You should satisfy these demigods by sacrifice, deva-yajan."

So in the village of that Vrndavana, the father of Krsna, foster father of Krsna, Nanda Maharaja and his associates, they were yearly performing the Indra-yajna. Because they were agriculturist, they depended on rain, sufficient rains. And he had many cows. Nanda Maharaja was a farm man. He is agriculture and cows. The mercantile people, the vaisya community, they are recommended three things: krsi-go-raksya-vanijyam [Bg 18.44].

[Farming, cow protection and business are the qualities of work for the vaisyas, and for the sudras there is labor and service to others.]

Krsi means agriculture, and go-raksya means cow protection, and vanijyam means trade.

So Nanda Maharaja belonged to the vaisya community. So he was well-to-do man, very rich man, and he had 900,000's of cows -- 900,000's of cows he was protecting. Formerly, according to Vedic civilization, a man was considered to be rich man in proportion of his stock of grains and livestock, cows. That's all. Dhanyena dhanavan. A man was considered to be rich man if he has sufficient quantity of grains at his possession, in his possession. Similarly, if one has sufficient number of cows in his possession, he was considered rich man. Not that bank balance. There was no such bank, neither this paper money. They actually possessing the foodstuff and milk.

And actually this is economic solution. If you have got sufficient milk, then you can make so many nice nutritious, full of vitamin values preparation and grains. There is no question of economic starvation if you have got simply grains and cows. So that was the standard of economic solution in days yore.

So they were preparing just to satisfy the demigod Indra, because he was supposed to sup... Not supposed; actually he supplies rains sufficiently. Without rains you cannot have successful agriculture. So they were preparing that sacrifice. So this preparation was being observed by Krsna and Balarama. Krsna is the youngest, and Balarama is the eldest. Balarama is son of Rohini, and Krsna is son of Devaki. Both these ladies, Rohini and Devaki, they were wives of Vasudeva, Krsna's father. So Balarama was born of Rohini, and Krsna was born of Devaki. Devaki-nandana-gopala. So Devaki-nandana.

So They were not very... There was not much difference of Their age, say one year or two years, like that. So Balarama was eldest brother. They were playing together, and this is an incidence when Balarama was about eight years old and Krsna was about seven years old. So, bhagavan tatraiva baladevena samyutah. Bhagavan, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, along with Baladeva, His elder brother, apasyan, "saw." What is that "saw"? Nivasan gopa indra-yaga-krtodyaman [SB 10.24.1]:

[Sukadeva Gosvami said: While staying in that very place with His brother Baladeva, Lord Krsna happened to see the cowherd men busily arranging for a sacrifice to Indra.]

"All the cowherds men, including His father, they were preparing for sacrifice of Indra-yajna." Indra-yajna.

tad-abhijno 'pi bhagavan

sarvatma sarva-darsanah

prasrayavanato 'prcchad

vrddhan nanda-puro-gaman

[SB 10.24.2]

[Being the omniscient Supersoul, the Supreme Lord Krsna already understood the situation, yet He still humbly inquired from the elders, headed by His father, Nanda Maharaja.]

He was the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He knew everything what they were doing and what was the purpose. Because He is present in everyone's heart, so He knows everything. But because He was playing just like a boy, cowherd boy, so as if He did not know anything, He asked, inquired from the..., from His father, and the elderly persons who were assisting His father for preparing the sacrifice.

Tad abhijno 'pi. This very word is used here, that "He knew everything," Bhagavan. Because Bhagavan means He must know everything -- past, present, future. There is no lack of knowledge. I have several times described before you, bhagavan means He is full of all opulences, and there are six opulences: riches, strength, fame, beauty, knowledge and renunciation. So Bhagavan cannot be in lack of knowledge. He must know everything. That is Bhagavan. So therefore it is said that "What is the use of asking His father what they were going to do? He knew everything."

But it is specifically mentioned, atad abhijno'pi. Although He knew it, because He was playing the part of a boy, and the father knew that "Krsna is my son..." They did not recognize Him that He is Personality of Godhead. They knew, "Oh, He is my ordinary son." Tad abhijno'pi bhagavan sarvatma. Sarvatma means one who is situated in everyone's heart. Sarvatma sarva-darsanah. Sarva-darsanah means one who can see everything, past, present and future. Still, prasrayavantah, "Just like an obedient son, submissive son," aprcchad vrddhan nanda-puro-gaman, "the elderly persons of His father's friends and associates, with very humbleness, He inquired." He inquired.

And what is that enquiry?

kathyatam me pitah ko 'yam

sambhramo va upagatah

kim phalam kasya coddesah

kena va sadhyate makhah

[SB 10.24.3]

[[Lord Krsna said:] My dear father, kindly explain to Me what this great endeavor of yours is all about. What is it meant to accomplish? If this is a ritual sacrifice, then for whose satisfaction is it intended and by what means is it going to be executed?]

etad bruhi mahan kamo

mahyam susrusave pitah

[SB 10.24.4]

[Please tell Me about it, O father. I have a great desire to know and am ready to hear in good faith. Certainly, no secrets are to be kept by saintly personalities, who see all others as equal to themselves, who have no conception of "mine" or "another's" and who do not consider who is a friend, who is an enemy and who is neutral.]

"My dear father, I very respectfully and humbly I am inquiring what is this arrangement. Why you are busy in making some sacrificial ceremony, and what is the reason and what is the result?" Kim phalam: "What is the result of doing this?" Kim phalam kasya ca uddesah: "By whom... Whom you are trying to satisfy?" Kena va sadhyate: "And what is the purpose of the sacrifice? So I cannot understand. Will you kindly explain to Me?" Etad bruhi mahan kamo: "I am very much anxious. Kindly explain to Me." Etad mahan kamo mahyam susrusave pitah: "Oh, I am your most obedient son, so you kindly explain to Me." This question was posed.

na hi gopyam hi sadhunam

krtyam sarvatmanam iha


amitro-dasastad visam

[SB 10.24.4]

"Now, if you think that it is very confidential, it cannot be disclosed, then I think for a person like you who is doing publicly such sacrifice, you should not [sic] explain to Me." Na hi gopyam hi sadhunam: "Sadhu..., sadhu, those who are saintly person, for them there is no secret." There is no secret. There is no privacy. A sadhu, sadhu has no privacy.

Just now in our ordinary social affairs, there is difference between private life and his public life. Now, if somebody is teacher... Now, he is very good teacher. He can very good..., he can explain very nicely a subject matter, but his private life is not very good -- then he is not a teacher; he is not a sadhu. That is Vedic conception. One must be a teacher according to his own behavior in life. There is no secrecy or privacy. Now, we think that "Oh, we don't mind what is private character. We don't mind. We are concerned with his teaching." No. That sort of teaching will not have any effect.

Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, apani acari prabhu jiveri siksaya: a teacher must demonstrate in his practical life what he is teaching. That is the meaning of acarya. Acarya means the teacher must demonstrate things by applying the same thing in his own life. That is called acarya. Therefore Krsna said that "You cannot disclose anything. You cannot keep anything private. Please disclose."

udasino 'rivad varyam

atmavat suhrd ucyate

[SB 10.24.5]

[One who is neutral may be avoided like an enemy, but a friend should be considered like one's own self.]

"And even if it is very confidential, I am your son. You can explain to Him [Me]. I am your well-wisher."

jnatvajnatva ca karmani

jano 'yam anutisthanti

vidusah karma-siddhih syat

tatha na viduso bhavet

[SB 10.24.6]

[When people in this world perform activities, sometimes they understand what they are doing and sometimes they don't. Those who know what they are doing achieve success in their work, whereas ignorant people do not.]

"Whether this is a superstition?" Just see how Krsna is speaking. "Whether it is a superstition or it has got some actual effect?" You should not do anything, religious rituals, under superstition. That is the recommendation of Krsna. Krsna does not like that people should perform anything under superstition. Suppose if you are sacrificing, if you are doing some ceremony, you must have thorough knowledge that there must be the result. There must be the result. Just like there are many sacrifices recommended in the Vedic literature, putresti-yajna. Putresti. Suppose a man has no son, and if he performs that sacrifice, he will have a son. That is a fact. Similarly, so many things there are.

So any rituals, religious rituals... Now, according to Krsna... How practical He is. He said that "No religious ritual should be performed without practical effect." Without practical effect. People have become atheist because in the modern age there are so many rituals in all religions, not only Hindu religion, but Christian religion. But, they say, simply formality; there is no effect. There is no effect. So such sort of rituals, religious ceremony, is not recommended by Krsna. You must actually the effect.

Just like in Puranas there was a talk between Lord Caitanya and Kazi, Chand Kazi. Chand Kazi was a Muhammadan magistrate, and Lord Caitanya, when He started this sankirtana movement, there was many complaints. Just like we are receiving daily reports that our sankirtana movement is disturbing some tenants here, similarly, when Lord Caitanya, He started His this sankirtana, some of the brahmanas... Because Lord Caitanya said that "This is the only religion. In this age, this chanting of Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare / Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare, this is the only religious principle, and everyone will have all his desires fulfilled by chanting this."

So the brahmanas, those who are priestly class, they thought that "If people take to this only chanting, then what about our churches and mosque and temples? They will not come." So they lodged a complaint to the magistrate that "This is not Hindu religion. He has discovered something in His own fertile brain, so we do not recognize it." So this complaint was lodged before the magistrate, and the magistrate took step, first of all warned Him that "Don't chant Hare Krsna." Then, when He did not care, then sent some constables, and the drums were broken. Then Caitanya Mahaprabhu started civil disobedience movement.

So He did not care for the magistrate. He started sankirtana throughout the whole city of Nabadwip. Then they approached the magistrate's house. Just the other day there was a procession in your city. So this civil disobedience movement was started first by Caitanya Mahaprabhu.

Now, there was some compromising talk with the magistrate, and in that talk the Caitanya Mahaprabhu first questioned... Because he was Muhammadan, Caitanya Mahaprabhu said that "In your religion there is killing of father and mother. What sort of religion this is?" The Kazi replied, "How do you say that we are killing our father and...?" "Yes. You are killing your mother. Cow gives you milk, delivers milk. You will drink the milk, and you kill the cow. Therefore you are killing your mother."

So the Kazi replied that "In your Vedic literature also, I have seen, there is cow sacrifice." So Caitanya Mahaprabhu replied, "That is not cow sacrifice. That is rejuvenation of cow. Old cows were sacrificed in the fire, and again a new life was given by the Vedic mantra. But because there is lack of such expert brahmanas to chant that mantra, therefore cow sacrifice in this age is forbidden."

So when the things are not practical, that becomes a forbidden. If you actually get the result by some spiritual or religious rituals, performance, then it is very good. Otherwise it is superstition. Lord Caitanya's opinion is that because all these Vedic injunctions, sacrifices, they are not possible to be performed in this age... They are very difficult. There is no expert leader to perform all these ceremonies and rituals. Therefore, take to this Hare Krsna. Take to this. There is no need of rituals. There is no need of expenses. Simply God has given you tongue, and God has given you ear. Just go on chanting: Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare / Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare, and it will fulfill your spiritual advancement.

Similarly, Krsna says, jnatva ajnatva ca karmani jano 'yam anutisthanti: "Generally, mass of people, they are ignorant. They perform some religious rituals, knowingly or unknowingly, as a matter of superstition or custom." So, vidusa karma-siddhih syat. But one who is intelligent, he should know that "By this sacrifice, I must get the result." Viduso karma-siddhih syat tatha na viduso bhavet: "And those who are fools, they, simply by superstition, they do it."

So Krsna did not recommend that you should do something under superstition. No. You must do it for practical result. This dogmatism, fanaticism -- "Oh, why I shall chant Hare Krsna? I am Christian," "I am Jews" -- this is fanaticism. If you find actually ecstasy by chanting Hare Krsna, why should you not? Why should you not? "No. I am Jew," "I am Christian," "I am Muhammadan." Well, it is transcendental vibration from the spiritual platform. Your Muhammadism, Christianism, Hinduisim, Buddhism, this is skin disease. This is...

Because you have got some particular body at particular circumstances, therefore you claim like that. But actually we are all spirit soul, and this sound vibration is from the spirit soul. It will appeal to everyone. See the effect. Then don't be fanatist. Don't be, I mean to say, sectarian. So Krsna wants that, that simply by custom, one should not follow the rituals. One should see the effect.

tatra tavat kriya-yogo

bhavatam kim vicaritah

athava laukikas tan me

prcchata sadhu [bhanyatam]

[SB 10.24.7]

[Such being the case, this ritualistic endeavor of yours should be clearly explained to Me. Is it a ceremony based on scriptural injunction, or simply a custom of ordinary society?]

"So, whether you are confident of the result of this sacrifice?" He is asking His father. Just see. Krsna was a boy, and He is asking His father, "Whether you are confident of the result of this sacrifice? You are going to satisfy the demigods, sacrifice. Or," athava laukikah, "or it is simply a custom, village custom, that you are doing it?" Laukikas tan me prcchata sadhu bhanyatam: "Now I am very much inquisitive to learn from you. Please explain."

Now His father is explaining:

parjanyo bhagavan indro

meghas tasyatma-murtayah

te 'bhivarsanti bhutanam

prinanam jivanam payah

[SB 10.24.8]

[Nanda Maharaja replied: The great Lord Indra is the controller of the rain. The clouds are his personal representatives, and they directly provide rainwater, which gives happiness and sustenance to all creatures.]

He says, "My dear boy, water is very essential, because without rains we cannot have any produce. Therefore... This rain is controlled by Bhagavan Indra. The heavenly king Indra, he controls the megha." Megha means cloud. "He is the master of the cloud. He can send cloud, and he can stop cloud. He is representative of God, so he has got the power." Te 'bhivarsanti bhutanam prinanam: "So when he allows this raining, people become satisfied. They get their produce."

tam tata vayam anye ca

carmucam patim isvaram

dravyais tad-retasa siddhyair

yajante kratubhir narah

[SB 10.24.9]

[Not only we, my dear son, but also many other men worship him, the lord and master of the rain-giving clouds. We offer him grain and other paraphernalia of worship produced through his own discharge in the form of rain.]

"Therefore it is our duty. Because he supplies us water, so it is our duty to show him respect by this sacrifice." This is the Vedic injunction. Just like we pay departmental tax. We pay to the Con Edison bills for the supply of electricity and gas. Similarly, we pay the bills of the telephone. But we have no program to pay the bills of the sun, who is supplying us so much light.

[aside:] What is that?

Devotee: That needle doesn't seem to be working.

[taps microphone]

Prabhupada: So it is our duty to sacrifice, and according to Vedic rituals, these are recommended, that we should satisfy. So Nanda Maharaja explained,

tac chesenopajivanti


pumsam purusa-karanam

parjanyah phala-bhavanah

[SB 10.24.10]

[By accepting the remnants of sacrifices performed to Indra, people sustain their lives and accomplish the threefold aims of religiosity, economic development and sense gratification. Thus Lord Indra is the agent responsible for the fruitive success of industrious people.]

"Now, this water is so important that it will produce grains, and we shall live. And for perfection of our life we must first live. So this is very important thing. So we have to satisfy Indra."

ya evam visrjed dharmam

param paryagatam narah

kama lobhad bhayad dvesat

sa vai napnoti sobhanam

[SB 10.24.11]

[This religious principle is based on sound tradition. Anyone who rejects it out of lust, enmity, fear or greed will certainly fail to achieve good fortune.]

He says, "My dear boy, we should not give up this parampara." Parampara means coming from disciplic succession or from generation. My father did it; my father's fathers did it. So every religious ceremony, and according to Vedic rituals, they are from parampara, family or society-wise or community-wise. In every country there is.

So he says that "This parampara, this successive generation we have been doing this, and we should not give it up." He understood Krsna's purpose, that "He is asking. He is very intelligent boy, so He is asking me all these questions just to forbid me." That He's just... "Like father like son." The father was also intelligent.

So, ya evam visrjed dharmam. Dharmam means one must execute. That is dharma. Just like to become hungry, it is my religion. This is called religion. We should know what is the meaning of religion. Religion means which we cannot separate from myself. The religion which you can change, that is not religion. Suppose I am Hindu; I become Christian. So neither this Hinduism is religion or Christian is religion. It is a dictionary, English dictionary, word. But dharma, according to Sanskrit word, dharma does not mean that which you can change. I have several times explained this fact. Dharma cannot be changed.

Therefore we must find out what is our dharma, what is our religion. Which we are professing, that "Christianity is my religion," "Hinduism, my religion," that is not religion. That is faith. Religion is different. Religion you cannot change. You cannot change. That is the meaning of religion. Here it is said that ya evam visrjed dharmam. Dharmam means you cannot change.

So, param paryagatam narah, kamat..., kamat lobhat. Now, religion sometimes, when it is taken as faith, they are changed. How they have changed? Kamat: for some gain. Just like in India formerly Christian religion was preached, giving some facilities. And generally, we see that Christian priests who go to foreign countries -- I have seen -- they offer some hospital facilities, some economic facilities. The poor men, they supply clothing and education. So those who are poor, they become captivated, and they... They have practically no religion. Anyway, they are facing the economic problems. So kamat. Kamat means for some gain. For some gain, kamat, and lobhat... Lobhat means by some greediness. And bhayat. Bhayat means out of fear. And dvesat. Dvesat means out of enviousness. For all these things one should not give up his faith or religion. So that, that was the explanation of Nanda Maharaja, the father of Krsna.

Now Krsna, replying, sri bhagavan uvaca. The reason of that sacrifice, as explained by Nanda Maharaja is that "Indra, the heavenly king, he supplies us water. Therefore we must perform the sacrifice to satisfy him." Now Krsna is giving reason just like an atheist. Just like an atheist, karma-mimamsa. There are six philosophers. Out of that, one is karma-mimamsa. Karma-mimamsa means one who takes work and the result of work and nothing, no God, nothing of... "You work like this; you get the result." Just like modern theory. So Krsna is putting up that karma-mimamsa.

What is that? He says, karmana jayate jantuh karmanaiva praliyate [SB 10.24.13]:

[Lord Krsna said: It is by the force of karma that a living entity takes birth, and it is by karma alone that he meets his destruction. His happiness, distress, fear and sense of security all arise as the effects of karma.]

"Everyone is born here out of..., as the effect of his past deeds," and karmanaiva praliyate, "and he is going to have his next birth according to the work as he is doing here." This is called karma-mimamsa. The karma-mimamsa philosophers, they do not believe that "Oh, our liberation from this material world and entrance in the spiritual kingdom to be associated with God, that will make us happy." Their belief is that "You simply do good work. Then you gradually get your promotion."

That is also a fact. That is not a misconception. If you do good work, then you get good birth. Janmaisvarya-sruta-sri [SB 1.8.26].

[My Lord, Your Lordship can easily be approached, but only by those who are materially exhausted, because one who is on the path of [material] progress, trying to improve himself with respectable parentage, great opulence, high education and bodily beauty, cannot address You with sincere feeling.]

Four things: good birth, mean a good family or good nationality, and janma... Birth means... Janma means birth, good birth. Janma aisvarya, and to become rich; and sruta, to become very learned; and sri, and to become very beautiful -- these are results of past good work.

So here Krsna says that "People are concerned with his work. A man is concerned with his work." Karmana jayate jantuh karmanaiva praliyate: "He gets his facilities of life according to the past good work, bad work, and he is preparing his life, next, by that work." Sukham duhkham bhayam ksemam karmanaivabhipadyate: "So therefore, either happiness or distress or fearfulness or poverty or economic question, everything depends on this karma, on this work."

asti ced isvarah kascit

phala-rupy anya-karmanam

kartaram bhajate so 'pi

na hy akartuh prabhur hi sah

[SB 10.24.14]

[Even if there is some supreme controller who awards all others the results of their activities, He must also depend upon a performer's engaging in activity. After all, there is no question of being the bestower of fruitive results unless fruitive activities have actually been performed.]

"Now, supposing there is somebody." Because these atheists, they do not believe in God; now they are giving arguments. "Now, suppose there is somebody as God or some supervisor or something like that. But still, he is obliged to give Me the effect. Therefore I am not going to ask mercy from that superior personality, God or something else. I have to work." And this is also fact. Suppose you are going to appear in some examination. Now, the university is giving you some designation. Now, that designation practically depends on your passing the examination. What is the use of flattering that examiner? That is the argument. There is no...

His argument is that "You are after the sacrifice of satisfying the Indra." So indirectly He says that "Indra is appointed by the Lord, and he has to supply water. He is officer. So what is the use of flattering him?" Just like there are many officers in the New York City. One is in charge of the waterwork department. So there is no question of flattering that waterworks department officer. You pay your tax, you work nicely, and water will be supplied to you. But if you don't pay your tax, however you flatter that officer, your connection will be cut off. So it depends on your work. It depends on your work.

So, asti ced isvarah kascit: "Supposing there is some God..." "There is some God." Just see. A God is preaching atheism. He is God Himself, and He says, "Supposing if there is some God." [laughs] You see? "Supposing if there is some God," kascit phala-rupy anya-karmanam, "and He gives the result of your work." The karma-mimamsa philosophers, they accept God in this way. "Suppose there is God and He is to give us the result. So He is obliged. If we do nice work, He is obliged. So what is the use of flattering God? Let us do our duty nicely. Then He will be obliged."

So Krsna is forwarding that argument. Asti ced isvarah kascit phala-rupy anya-karmanam, kartaram bhajate so 'pi: "He also worships the worker. The worker has not to worship God. Because God gives you good result out of your good work; therefore, because you are doing good work, therefore God is worshiping you." Just see the argument. He says, kartaram bhajate so 'pi na hy akartuh prabhur: "And one who does not do good work, even God does not like him. So there is no necessity of this worshiping this heavenly god or any god, so let us have our duty done nicely. That will fetch us the desired result."

kim indreneha bhutanam


anisenanyatha kartum

svabhava-vihitam nrnam

[SB 10.24.15]

[Living beings in this world are forced to experience the consequences of their own particular previous work. Since Lord Indra cannot in any way change the destiny of human beings, which is born of their own nature, why should people worship him?]

"So, therefore, there is no... Father, there is no necessity of satisfying this Indra. You are simply wasting your time. You are simply wasting your time."


svabhava-tantro hi janah

svabhavam anuvartate

svabhava-stham idam sarvam


[SB 10.24.16]

[Every individual is under the control of his own conditioned nature, and thus he must follow that nature. This entire universe, with all its demigods, demons and human beings, is based on the conditioned nature of the living entities.]

"Everyone is acting according to the modes of nature he has acquired, so whatever nature we have acquired..." His purpose is that "By nature we are mercantile people." Because His father was maintaining cows, so he is considered a mercantile man. Vaisya-karma svabhava-jam. Krsi-go-raksya-vanijyam vaisya-karma svabhava-jam [Bg 18.44].

[Farming, cow protection and business are the qualities of work for the vaisyas, and for the sudras there is labor and service to others.]

So He is giving stress that "Let us perform our duty as mercantile men honestly, and that will bring us result. Why should we go to worship these demigods?"

Now, here is a point, that Krsna does not approve the worship of demigods. That is also stated in the Bhagavad-gita. Kamais tais tair hrta-jnana yajanty anya-devatah [Bg 7.20]:

[Those whose minds are distorted by material desires surrender unto demigods and follow the particular rules and regulations of worship according to their own natures.]

"Those who are out of intelligence, they simply worship the demigods." In the Bhagavad-gita or in the Bhagavata, anywhere, worship of demigods is not very much recommended.

So here also the same thing, that svabhava-tantro hi janah: "Everyone is carried by the modes of nature." Svabhavam anuvartate: "And he cannot surpass the spell of the modes of nature." Svabhavam anuvartante, svabhavas tam idam sarvam: "Everyone is under the control of the nature he has acquired." And sa-devasura manusah. Sa-devasura. "Always, either he is man or superman or animal, everyone is being controlled by the modes of nature."

dehan uccavacan jantuh

prapyotsrjati karmana

satrur mitram udasinah

karmaiva gurur isvarah

[SB 10.24.17]

[Because it is karma that causes the conditioned living entity to accept and then give up different high-and low-grade material bodies, this karma is his enemy, friend and neutral witness, his spiritual master and controlling lord.]

He is giving so much stress on karma. There is no question of bhakti here. So dehan uccavacan. There are difference of, I mean, high-grade body and low-grade body. There are different kinds of body. Somebody has got very high-grade body -- very intelligent, very rich, very beautiful, very wealthy -- and somebody has low-grade body. So dehan uccavacan jantuh prapyotsrjati karmana: "Now, these high-grade and low-grade bodies are obtained according to the work he has done."

Satrur mitram udasinah karmaiva gurur isvarah: "And one is the leader or one is a teacher or one is enemy or one is friend -- everything is judged by this karma, by work." Just see how much He is giving stress on work. Karmaiva. Karmaiva gurur isvarah.

tasmat sampujayet karma

svabhava-sthah sva-karma-krt

anjasa yena varteta

tad evasya hi daivatam

[SB 10.24.18]

[Therefore one should seriously worship work itself. A person should remain in the position corresponding to his nature and should perform his own duty. Indeed, that by which we may live nicely is really our worshipable deity.]

"Therefore you don't bother yourself about worshiping this god or that god, demigod. You just be faithful to your work, and then that will give you good result." Anjasa yena varteta tad evasya hi daivatam.

ajivaikataram bhavam

yas tv anyam upajivati

na tasmad vindate ksemam

jaran nary asati yatha

[SB 10.24.19]

[If one thing is actually sustaining our life but we take shelter of something else, how can we achieve any real benefit? We would be like an unfaithful woman, who can never achieve any actual benefit by consorting with her paramour.]

He is condemning, that one's profession... He has... Lord Krsna has in the Bhagavad-gita also said like that. Sva-karmana tam abhyarcya [Bg 18.46]. One should not give up his own profession, never mind even it is faulty. You have heard it from me. Just like He has given the example that fire, fire is so pure, still there is fault: there is smoke. So in spite of all fault one should not give up his own work, but he should do it faithfully and nicely, and the result will come. Ajivaikataram bhavam yas tu. And He says here that "Anyone who gives up his own natural profession, natural aptitude, profession, so..." Na tasmad vindate ksemam jaran nary asati yatha.

Jaran nary asati yatha. Now, this is a very important question. Nary asati. Asati. Asati means not chaste, not chaste woman. Just like... In India, of course, it is very strict, that the woman is not to give up her husband and acquaint herself with any other man. This example is given that "As an unchaste woman gives up her own husband and makes friendship with others, similarly, one who gives up his own profession and takes other profession, he is also similarly unchaste." Unchaste. Nary asati yatha.

Varteta brahmano vipra rajanya raksaya bhuvah [SB 10.24.20]:

[The brahmana maintains his life by studying and teaching the Vedas, the member of the royal order by protecting the earth, the vaisya by trade, and the sudra by serving the higher, twice-born classes.]

"Therefore one should not deviate from his professional duties, just like the brahmanas..." Brahman..., varteta brahmano viprah: "Those who are brahmana, they should stick to their principle of life, simply spiritual culture." Rajanya raksaya bhuvah: "And those who are ksatriyas, they should stick to their protecting the citizen." The kingly order, royal order, their duty is to give protection to the... They should not simply collect tax. The ksatriyas, this king is allowed to collect tax because he is supposed to give all protection to the people. So therefore it is said, rajanya raksaya bhuvah. Rajanya means the royal order stick to his principle, how to give protection to the people.

Similarly, vaisyas tu vartaya jivet sudras tu dvija-sevaya: "Similarly, these mercantile, they should live on their trade, and those who are sudra, those who are laborer class, they should serve all these three classes." That is the rules.



kusidam turyam ucyate

varta catur-vidha tatra

vayam go-vrttayo 'nisam

[SB 10.24.21]

[The occupational duties of the vaisya are conceived in four divisions: farming, commerce, cow protection and moneylending. Out of these, we as a community are always engaged in cow protection.]

"Now, according to scripture, we are vaisya, and we should live not in the brahminical way or ksatriya's way or sudra's way, but we should live just like vaisyas. And we are actually agriculturist, and we are actually protecting cows; therefore we are vaisyas. Our duty is to stick to our..., faithfully stick to our business, stick to our work. What is the use of worshiping this god or that god?"

sattvam rajas tama iti


rajasotpadyate visvam

anyonyam vividham jagat

[SB 10.24.22]

[The causes of creation, maintenance and destruction are the three modes of nature -- namely goodness, passion and ignorance. In particular, the mode of passion creates this universe and through sexual combination causes it to become full of variety.]

Now He is forwarding the atheistic theory of Kapila, sankhya philosophy. Sankhya philosophy. Sankhya philosophy theory is that there is no controller, there is no God, but it is..., the world is moving under nature's interaction. Just the modern scientist also say like that. The world... Every action of this material world is being acted... Just like sankhya philosophy is based on this philosophy, that a man and woman is attracted and they have sex life, and the son is produced, and there is no other..., no other reason for population. Simply a man wants a woman and a woman wants a man. That natural tendency is there, and when they combine together there is a birth of a child.

So this is a natural sequence. Sankhya philosophy is based on this principle. They do not believe that above this, there is God. Nirisa. Above this, there is God. There is God's control. Actually there is God. Sexual intercourse is not the cause of a child. According to Bhagavata, that a living entity, before his death he is, by superior judgment, it is thought that "Where this living entity, where this particular man or dog or anything, he is dying, where it will be placed?"

So when that place is, I mean to say, sanctioned, the place is selected, that "This particular man should go in such-and-such body," then he is at once transferred to the semina. That small particle, spiritual particle, is transferred to the semina of the father, and the father injects the semina into the mother's womb, and it gets a particular type of body according to his karma. That is Bhagavata's version. But the sankhya philosophy, they say, because they have no idea that there is spiritual spark, they think simply that, simply the father and mother's or man and woman's sex life produces life.

So here practically the same thing is advocated by Krsna, that sattvam rajas tama iti sthity-utpatty-anta-hetavah. Now, the creation of this material world is the three modes of material nature. There is no other cause. There is no other cause. Rajasa codita megha varsanty ambuni sarvatah [SB 10.24.23]:

[Impelled by the material mode of passion, the clouds pour down their rain everywhere, and by this rain all creatures gain their sustenance. What has the great Indra to do with this arrangement?]

"So when there is too much heat by," I mean to say, "aggravation of the modes of passion, there is evaporation of water, and that becomes cloud, and that is the cause of... The cloud is the cause of rain. Why do you go to this Indra and Candra and all these things?" Just see Krsna, how He is speaking atheistically.

So, prajas tair eva sidhyanti mahendrah kim karisyati: "Therefore that rain constitutes agriculture. So why do you bother about this Mahendra?" Just like modern scientists say that "We shall artificially make raining so that where there is scarcity of rain we shall fertilize the land, we shall get production," so similarly, the sankhya philosophy, according to sankhya philosophy, that rain is caused by the heat, and by the heat there is cloud in the sky, and the cloud is the cause of the rain. There is no question of Mahendra, the controller of the cloud, or anything else.

prajas tair eva sidhyanti

mahendrah kim karisyati

[SB 10.24.23]

[Impelled by the material mode of passion, the clouds pour down their rain everywhere, and by this rain all creatures gain their sustenance. What has the great Indra to do with this arrangement?]

na nah puro jana-pada

na grama na grha vayam

vanaukasas tata nityam


[SB 10.24.24]

[My dear father, our home is not in the cities or towns or villages. Being forest dwellers, we always live in the forest and on the hills.]

"So therefore we are not going to the city. We are inhabitants of this village. So it is better to worship this land, this land, this land, Govardhana." Because Krsna was herding His cows on the Govardhana Hill, so indirectly He hinted that "We should worship this Govardhana Hill, and that is our duty."

So it is a long story, three, four chapters. Of course, it will take some time. I don't think you can give us so much time. The net..., the result is that when Krsna talked like this, then His father agreed not to perform the sacrifice. Because all the inhabitants of Vraja, Vrndavana, they are so much fond of Krsna, whatever Krsna will say, they will accept. So although Krsna was a boy, so He implored His father and other elderly gentlemen present there that "There is no need of performing this sacrifice." So they stopped sacrifice.

As a result of this stopping, Indra became very much angry, and there was torrents of rain, incessant rain, and very, I mean, very vehemently. So the whole village and whole tract of land comprising the Vrajabhumi, they became overflooded. And the cows and the animals and the people became too much afflicted. So they had no other source. They approached Krsna, "Protect us. Krsna, protect us." So at that time Krsna said, "Yes, I will give you protection." So He was, although a boy of six or seven years old, He lifted that hill.

That is... We are... If any time you go to India you will see the hill. It is not less than at least five, six miles' area, very big hill. That hill was lifted by Him, and He kept that hill in His hand for seven days. And then everything was cleared. Then Indra prayed Him. So there are many things after this.

But, today Krsna lifted this hill; therefore His name is Giridhari. Giridhari means who held the hill. Giri means the hill, and dhari means one who holds up. So today is that, is the annual ceremony of today, this Govardhana-puja. So we follow that principle. Because we are devotees of Krsna, we are trying to follow His instruction.

So at noontime we shall perform that puja, and you are invited to take prasadam. I think prasadam will be ready by eleven o'clock, and you will kindly participate in taking prasadam. [end]

Bhagavad-gita 9.2–4–

November 16, 1966, New York